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COMMENTARY
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 237-238  

Approach for mosquito-borne diseases control by trapping tool


Department of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China; Department of Community Medicine, Dr DY Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India

Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2018

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJDRDYPU.MJDRDYPU_212_17

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How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Approach for mosquito-borne diseases control by trapping tool. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2018;11:237-8

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Approach for mosquito-borne diseases control by trapping tool. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 25];11:237-8. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2018/11/3/237/235562



Mosquito-borne infectious disease is the big public health consideration. Several infections are still endemic in many developing tropical countries and cause a considerable number of morbidity and mortality. For management of the disease, mosquito control is the basic requirement. To perform mosquito control, there are many techniques ranging from using simple mechanical getting rid of mosquito, biological control, or chemical control. The concept paper on “An Innovative Approach for Mosquito-borne Diseases control – an original concept [1]” is an interesting idea making use of simple vector trapping tool and killing of the trapped vectors.[1] For sure, this technique is considered an environmental friendly technique without problem of chemical hazardous contamination to the environment. The design trapping technique is hereby a new approach that still requires further modification and next studying to get the finalized effective designed tool. Nevertheless, using trapping technique might be a useful but still has some limitations. In the areas with abundance of mosquito vectors, it requires numerous trapping tool for successful trapping the mosquitoes in that area and it also further requires several workload for trapped mosquito killing. The trapping approach might be classified as a mechanic technique for vector control. The final step is still the complete getting rid of the vectors by killing them. Focusing on the trapping technique, the collaboration by the community is very important. The villagers in the endemic villages have to well participate in trapping attempt. The effect of odor is basically due to its chemical components. In fact, a similar concept on trapping was recently reported from Zambia.[2] In that report, Sikaala et al. noted that “community-based trapping schemes appear to be far more affordable, epidemiologically relevant, and cost-effective than centrally supervised trapping schemes and may well be applicable to enhance intervention trials and even enable routine programmatic monitoring of vector population dynamics on unprecedented national scales.[2]

As already mentioned, modification on the proposed trapping technique to increase the efficacy of the tool is recommended. In fact, there are some recent interesting reports on how to increase the efficacy in mosquito trapping. The use of odor to attract the vector is an interesting technique. Mukabana et al. recently reported on a new “a novel odor-based tool” for attracting the vectors.[3] In that report, “a standard synthetic blend consisting of ammonia, (S)-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid, and carbon dioxide (CO2) was complemented with isovaleric acid, 4,5 dimethylthiazole, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol” was proposed by Mukabana et al. as a “novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other African mosquito species.[3]” In another study, Okumu et al. reported on a new “Ifakara Odor-baited Station,” which is “a 4 m3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes that are baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents”.[4] The two mentioned examples provide evidence that odor adding can be an important modification for improvement of the efficacy of any newly intervened tool for attracting vectors aiming at trapping those vectors. Among any odors, the human-derived odors are usually main attractant to vector. How to collect the odors from human is an interesting issue. In an interesting report by Owino et al., a simple collection could be done using cotton socks and T-shirts. Owino et al. mentioned that the cotton socks and T-shirts could help collect human skin volatile odors and further applied as attractant for vectors.[5] For modifying, some materials can be applied for dispensing odorant. For example, Okumu et al. reported the use of nylon strips to dispense mosquito attractants for sampling the malaria vector.[6] Okumu et al. mentioned that “The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or electricity.[6]” Indeed, the volatile gas is also reported on its similar effect to odor in attracting vector. The report by Smallegange et al. is a good example.[7] In that study by Smallegange et al., sugar-fermenting yeast was used as an organic source of CO2 production aiming at attracting the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae.[7] Indeed, CO2 is acceptable as a useful gas that helps attract the mosquito vector. Ritchie et al. recently reported on another simple nonpowered passive trap.[8] Focusing on the action of that tool, Ritchie et al. noted that “it captures mosquitoes as they follow a CO2 plume up a polyvinyl chloride pipe leading to a clear chamber consisting of a plastic crate.[8]” Finally, the use of simple sticky material is also approved for the usefulness. In fact, the sticky material applying can be a simple and easy modification of the trapping tool. For the specific sticky material applying, Dugassa et al. noted that “Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats.[9]



 
  References Top

1.
Chattopadhyay S. An innovative approach for mosquito borne diseases control – An original concept. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2018;11:232-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
2.
Sikaala CH, Chinula D, Chanda J, Hamainza B, Mwenda M, Mukali I, et al. A cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural Zambia. Malar J 2014;13:225.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mukabana WR, Mweresa CK, Otieno B, Omusula P, Smallegange RC, van Loon JJ, et al. A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other African mosquito species. J Chem Ecol 2012;38:235-44.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Okumu FO, Madumla EP, John AN, Lwetoijera DW, Sumaye RD. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations – The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations. Parasit Vectors 2010;3:12.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Owino EA, Sang R, Sole CL, Pirk C, Mbogo C, Torto B, et al. Field evaluation of natural human odours and the biogent-synthetic lure in trapping Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya. Parasit Vectors 2014;7:451.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Okumu F, Biswaro L, Mbeleyela E, Killeen GF, Mukabana R, Moore SJ, et al. Using nylon strips to dispense mosquito attractants for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. J Med Entomol 2010;47:274-82.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Smallegange RC, Schmied WH, van Roey KJ, Verhulst NO, Spitzen J, Mukabana WR, et al. Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Malar J 2010;9:292.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ritchie SA, Cortis G, Paton C, Townsend M, Shroyer D, Zborowski P, et al. A simple non-powered passive trap for the collection of mosquitoes for arbovirus surveillance. J Med Entomol 2013;50:185-94.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Torr SJ, Oyieke F, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U, et al. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors. Malar J 2012;11:374.  Back to cited text no. 9
    




 

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