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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111-115  

Correlation and comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups among dental students from Western Maharashtra


1 Department of Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, KIMS “Deemed to be University,” Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMS “Deemed to be University,” Karad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission22-Apr-2018
Date of Acceptance01-Aug-2018
Date of Web Publication25-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Sushma Bommanavar
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMS “Deemed to be University,” Karad, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_65_18

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  Abstract 


Background: Identification plays a major role in any crime investigation. Study of finger prints (Dactyloscopy) and palatal rugae patterns (Palatoscopy) have been recognized and accepted as gold standard for personal identification worldwide. Yet another biological record that remains timeless throughout the lifespan of a person is the blood group. Research works have been carried out on Dactyloscopy/Palatoscopy and blood groups independently. However, studies focusing on correlation and comparison of both these parameters have not been undertaken to a great extent. Aim: The aim of the present study is to correlate and compare Dactyloscopy and Palatoscopy with blood group among dental students from western Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 dental students with age group ranging between 18-25 years with known blood group were included in the study. Finger print, Palatal rugae patterns were obtained and compared and the data was subjected to Excel sheet 2016 and Chi square test. Results: There was significant association between finger print patterns and ABO - Rh factors (χ2 statistic= 30.6, P value = < 0.05) and No correlation exists between palatal rugae patterns with blood groups and Rh factor (χ2 statistic= 17.71, P value = P > 0.05). Conclusion: Hence, the study concluded that finger prints rather than palatal rugae when correlated with suspect's specific blood group - Rh factor can be used to narrow down the suspect list and can also prove significant in identifying individuals in case of any disaster. Though the comparison of palatal rugae and finger print with blood group - Rh factor yielded no result.

Keywords: ABO Blood groups, dactyloscopy, palatoscopy, personal identification, Rh factor


How to cite this article:
Ramdas S, Bommanavar S, Baad R, Vibhute N, Belgaumi U, Kadashetti V, Kamate W. Correlation and comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups among dental students from Western Maharashtra. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2019;12:111-5

How to cite this URL:
Ramdas S, Bommanavar S, Baad R, Vibhute N, Belgaumi U, Kadashetti V, Kamate W. Correlation and comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups among dental students from Western Maharashtra. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Apr 18];12:111-5. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2019/12/2/111/254780




  Introduction Top


Every individual has a distinctive trait and determination of a person's identity is a crucial and an exigent task in forensic sciences. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing demands placed on law enforcement for proper identification that provides an important clue in tracing the unknown linking a perpetrator to crime.[1],[2],[3],[4] Hence, fast and secure method of identification using scientific parameters such as blood grouping and saliva becomes essential in various crime scenarios using simpler supplemental aids that are hassle free and inexpensive.[5],[6] The analysis of fingerprint and palatal rugae patterns satisfy this domain.[6]

Fingerprint has a distinctive characteristic or pattern that can be used to identify an individual. These epidermal ridges are differentiated in their derivative forms during the 3rd or 4th month of fetal life and remain unchanged from birth till death.[1],[7],[8] Similarly, palatal rugae patterns are specific to an individual, protected due to their internal location and being insulated from heat from tongue and buccal pad of fat.[8] The rugae once formed, do not undergo any changes except that of length due to regular growth, throughout the person's life.[9],[10] Yet another biological record that remains timeless throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group. Determining the blood group of a person as classified by Landsteiner, from the samples obtained at the site of crime, helps identify a person.[1],[3] Hence, the present study was planned keeping all these points in mind, to correlate and compare dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups among dental students that may serve as a valuable aid in forensic sciences for personal identification.


  Material and Methods Top


A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 200 dental students (2nd BDS, 3rd BDS, and 4th BDS) from March 2016 to June 2016. The age group ranged from 18 to 25 years. After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance with Ref No. KIMSDU/IEC/03/2015, the study was conducted in School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad. The inclusion criteria were individuals who were free from any trauma or lesions on palate as well as any cuts or injuries on the fingers (thumb). The exclusion criteria were individuals with deformities of palate such as cleft palate, traumatic injury on fingers/palate, and allergy to alginate impression material. The armamentarium used for the purpose of the study is shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Armamentarium used for the study purpose

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For fingerprint

The individual was asked to place his right thumb over the stamp pad (CAMLIN COMPANY of size 157 mm × 96 mm) and the fingerprint was recorded using ink method on the A4sheet by rolling their finger gently. Since the print was not appreciable on first impression due to the smudging of ink, we realized that second press on the same sheet obtained better appreciable prints as shown in [Figure 2]. Hence, these second prints were used for final interpretation with the help of magnifying glass (TAG 3™, 50 mm double reading glass optical graded lens with × 5 and × 10 magnifying capacity) and was classified based on Michael and Kucken's fingerprint classification.[11]
Figure 2: Fingerprints with first and second impression

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For palatal rugae

Alginate (Dentsply chromatic) impressions of maxillary arch was prepared and poured by means of dental stone (dentstone). A dental plaster base was then made and the rugae patterns were traced on these casts using a sharp graphite pencil under sufficient light [Figure 3]. The palatal rugae patterns were subsequently explored on these casts using magnifying lens. The palatal rugae were classified by Kapali et al.[12] based on shape of palatal rugae.
Figure 3: Palatal rugae patterns

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All the participants with known blood group were selected for the study. The data were subjected for percentage proportions and compared. Statistical comparison between fingerprints and palatal rugae with ABO blood group and Rh factor was done using Chi-square test and data were analyzed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences, Inc, Chicago, IL).


  Results Top


Females (72.5%) outnumbered the males (27.5%) in the study. Majority of the participants belonged to the blood group B (40%) followed by O (27%), A (24%), and AB (9%). About 96% of participants were Rh positive.

Percentage distributions of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns

Loops were the most common pattern (62.5%) followed by whorl (29%) and the least being arch type (8.5%). There was significant association between fingerprint patterns and ABO blood group (P < 0.05) (χ2 statistic = 23.02, P = 0.001).

Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns in the respective blood group and Rh

Within the respective blood group, the incidence of loop pattern in a blood group was 47.9% followed by whorl (35.4%) and arch (16.7%). In B blood group, the incidence of loop was 75% followed by whorl (22.5%) and arch (2.5%). O blood group showed 48.1% individuals with loop followed by whorl (38.9%) arch (12.9%) while AB blood group showed significant higher percentage with loop (88.9%) followed by whorl (11.1%). No incidence of arch type was seen in AB blood group (χ2 statistic = 0.963, P = 0.618, df = 2) [Figure 4] and [Figure 5].
Figure 4: Percentage distributions of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns

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Figure 5: Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns in the respective blood group and Rh

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Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns within ABO-rhesus blood group

The general distribution of pattern of fingerprint showed high frequency of loops followed by whorls and arches in both Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals in all blood groups, except blood group A-ve which showed more whorls. There was significant association of fingerprint patterns and ABO – Rh (P < 0.05) as shown in [Table 1] (χ2 statistic = 30.6, P = 0.006).
Table 1: Distribution of finger prints within ABO rhesus blood groups

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Percentage distribution of the most prevalent palatal rugae print patterns

Wavy type was most predominant (46%) followed by curved (38.5%) and straight type (15.5%). Circular type was not found in our study as shown in [Figure 6] (χ2 statistic = 6.13, P = 0.409).
Figure 6: Percentage distribution of the most prevalent palatal rugae print patterns

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Percentage distribution of the most prevalent palatal rugae print patterns within blood groups and Rh

In A blood group, wavy and the curved type showed similar statistical presentation with 43.8% followed by straight type (12.5%). The incidence of wavy type in B blood group showed higher occurrence (51.3%) followed by curved type (35%) and straight type (13.8%). O blood group showed wavy type (38.9%) followed by curved type (37%) and straight type (24.1%). AB blood group showed wavy (50%) followed by curved type (44.4%) and straight type (5.6%) as shown in [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. There was no significant association found between palatal rugae, ABO blood groups, Rh factor, and ABO-Rh blood groups (P > 0.05) as shown in [Figure 6] and [Figure 7] (χ2 statistic = 0.466, P = 0.792) and [Table 2] (χ2 statistic = 17.71, P = 0.22).
Figure 7: Percentage distribution of the most prevalent palatal rugae print patterns within blood groups and Rh

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Table 2: Distribution of palatal rugae within ABO Rhesus blood groups

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Comparison of fingerprint and palatal rugae with ABO blood group and Rh factor

In the present study, fingerprint and palatal rugae were compared with respective blood group and Rh factor is shown in [Table 3] (Fingerprint: χ2 statistic = 30.6, P = 0.006, df = 14; Palatal Rugae: χ2 statistic = 17.71, P = 0.22, df = 14).
Table 3: Shows cross tabulation of the chi square test between finger print, palatal rugae patterns and ABO-Rhesus blood group

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  Discussion Top


The epithelium of the primary palate, development of finger buds, and determination of the blood group are all genetically linked. Based on the above facts, one can correlate fingerprint and palatal rugae with blood group.[13] Hence, the present study was planned to take a step further wherein correlation as well as comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups were conducted among dental students in western Maharashtra.

Fingerprint and blood group

Fingerprints are one of the best oldest legitimate proofs of identification in crime scenes. Fingers have specific patterns of ridges and furrows that are genetically determined and formed by an enigmatic phenomenon of folding (buckling) mechanism[11] and remain same till death. Statistical probability of two individuals having the same pattern is almost nil. Furthermore, the blood group that includes both the types – ABO and Rh are constant and specific to every individual. Therefore, the present study was undertaken keeping this point in mind. The three basic patterns of fingerprints as given by Kücken and Newell were considered.[11]

Bharadwaja et al.[14] conducted a study on 300 medical students in Rajasthan. The study results revealed that individuals with blood Group A+ have more of loops and those with blood Group AB+ have more of whorls. This was similar with the results of the present study.

The present study showed that loop (62.5%) was the most predominant followed by whorl (29%) and arch (8.5%). These findings were in accordance with the study conducted by Kshirsagar et al.,[15] Mahajan,[16] Joshi et al.,[17] and Srilekha et al.[3] Fayrouz[18] carried out similar study among 305 Libyan students wherein the results inferred that whorl pattern was predominant in B+ and B– individuals whereas our present study showed loop pattern to be predominant in the same blood groups. Rastogi and Pillai[19] found loops and arches to be more common in blood group A and whorls in blood group O among Rh-positive groups which showed varied results when compared to the present study. Study conducted by Sharma et al.[20] and Pate et al.[21] shows that blood group O have the highest frequency of whorls which is not similar to the result obtained in the present study Radhika et al.[22] showed that loops were predominant in blood group O followed by whorls. Arch and composite were common among O and A positive individuals. This was in concordance with the present study except for composite pattern, which was nil.

Palatal rugae and blood group

The study of palatal rugae pattern is called as rugoscopy or palatoscopy. These patterns have gained tremendous significance in cases where all the other structures of body are grossly destroyed. The fact that these structures are internal in location, protected from trauma, and insulated from heat due to the presence of buccal pad of fat and tongue, make these as a valuable aid in forensic identification studies.[23] The classification of palatal rugae was given by Thomas and Kotze for number, type, and unification, and Kapali et al.'s classification based on the shape.[23] Hunasgi et al.[9] conducted a study on palatal rugae in two different population and correlated with the sex of the individuals and his results inferred that wavy and curved patterns were predominant in Karnataka compared to Kerala population while straight was slightly more in Kerala population than Karnataka population. Nayak et al.[24] and Saraf et al.[25] conducted similar studies but showed varying results wherein the curved pattern was more common in males than females. Since lot of variation existed in results using the shape of the palatal rugae in sex identification, the present study was done to correlate palatal rugae with blood group. The study results showed that the rugae patterns were specific for each blood group. In the present study, B+ being showed wavy type as most common pattern in the population followed by curved type and straight type. To substantiate these results, similar studies should be conducted using blood group as the basic parameter.


  Conclusion Top


The salient features of this study includes: Absence of arch type of fingerprints in AB blood group and complete absence of circular type of palatal rugae in the complete sample.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Bharadwaja A, Saraswat PK, Aggarwal SK, Banerji P, Bharadwaja S, et al. Pattern of fingerprints in different ABO blood groups. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2004;26:6-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Kshirsagar SV, Burgul SN, Kamkhedkar SG. Study of fingerprint patterns in ABO blood group. J Anat Soc India 2003;52:82-115.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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