Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Print this page Email this page Users Online: 1332

  Table of Contents  
COMMENTARY
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-7  

Employing analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate model for the successful planning, implementation, and evaluation of integrated teaching program in India


1 Vice-Principal Curriculum, Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpattu, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpattu, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpattu, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu - 603 108
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_60_19

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Employing analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate model for the successful planning, implementation, and evaluation of integrated teaching program in India. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2020;13:5-7

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Employing analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate model for the successful planning, implementation, and evaluation of integrated teaching program in India. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Feb 17];13:5-7. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2020/13/1/5/272884



Integrated teaching has a crucial role to play in the development of an Indian medical graduate as it provides a platform for a student to develop linkage between different knowledge blocks and eventually apply them in a rational manner.[1],[2] It enables a student to acquire various essential skills (namely, critical thinking and clinical reasoning), which are must in the current era of clinical practice and for the development of a successful doctor.[1],[2] Acknowledging the importance of the integrated teaching, due weightage has been given to the same in the newly proposed Competency Based undergraduate curriculum with a vision to empower medical students to learn the art of integrating different concepts.[1]

The competency-based undergraduate curriculum proposed by Medical Council of India has taken into account the 11 steps of Harden's ladder of integration to keep a check on the level of integration, and at the same time, it has been precisely specified to not exceed beyond 20% of the total curriculum.[1],[3] Both of these things are quite essential as they give the curriculum committees and medical education units of the institutes an opportunity to plan the curriculum and do precise scheduling. This will aid in not exceeding beyond the permissible limits under the banner of doing something as an innovation.[1],[2],[3] Obviously, it will be a big challenge for all the medical colleges across India to implement the same in a uniform manner.[1] In that case, the best option will be to design a module for integrated teaching program, which will be of immense utility in the stages of planning, implementing, and evaluating the integrated teaching programs.[1],[4]

Even though a number of models have been available, we have opted for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate model, as it is quite easy to use. It is an instructional design model, which has been used quite frequently for the training and development, and it follows a five-step process to aid in the formulation of an effective teaching program as depicted below.[1],[2],[3],[4]


  Analyze Top


The aim of this stage is to understand the intended goals of starting the integrated teaching program, and for addressing these, we need to answer the following questions in our current settings:

  • What are we doing now?: Traditional or competency-based medical education or hybrid
  • How we are deficient in our efforts at present?: This can be derived by parameters such as the quality of graduates produced, the skills of the graduates, passing percentage, and percentage of students clearing postgraduate entrance examinations
  • How integrated teaching can help us to bridge the existing gap?: In what all areas integrated teaching can help the current lot of undergraduate students to upgrade their skills
  • Do we have the adequate resources?: It is a very important aspect, especially if we are planning to resort to problem-oriented learning sessions, as it requires training of faculty members and other logistics
  • What all needs to be done to successfully design and implement the integrated curriculum?: This could range from faculty development, timetabling, planning of assessment, and phasing of the integrated teaching
  • Whether learners' views have been obtained?: As students are our prime focus of interest, their views should be definitely considered before resorting to something totally novel
  • Does it require too much financial investment and whether for the same do we have the management support?
  • Whether the desired plan fulfills the MCI norms?: Maintain integration to <20% and up to level 7 as stated in the Harden's ladder of integration.



  Design Top


The second stage considers the data obtained in the analysis stage as the baseline document, and subsequently, the module is developed by inquiring the involved stakeholders so that the framework for the integrated teaching program can be designed. The identified tasks are fragmented into feasible activities with an aim to incorporate all activities required for the integrated teaching program, except the precise details of the topics which will be integrated. Gantt chart can be developed for the proposed activities for the overall development, implementation, and evaluation of the program.


  Develop Top


In the third step, the specific content of the integrated teaching has to be decided. The potential outcomes at this stage are as follows:

  • Faculty: Topics to be integrated, lesson plans for the same through involvement of all the concerned departments, and development of the guide
  • Undergraduate student: Development of guidelines, workbook, and handouts
  • Resources: Infrastructure, technical support, and Teaching-Learning method activities which will be used for the delivery of integrated teaching
  • Deciding about the assessment of the integrated teaching sessions and whether these assessments will be a part of the final internal assessment mark
  • Deciding about the tools which will be used for the program evaluation
  • Review of involved costs and timeline of key events.



  Implement Top


As the name suggests, the integrated teaching program can be implemented, and the faculty members along with all the other stakeholders should take all efforts for the smooth implementation through better coordination between the involved departments and by following a clear timetable for the classes. In this stage, we can focus on the outcomes such as

  • Organization of integrated teaching sessions
  • Availability of essential infrastructure and technical expertise
  • Preparedness of the faculty members
  • Conduction of knowledge–skill–attitude assessments to test the skills of the students
  • Obtaining feedback from the undergraduate students.



  Evaluate Top


The final stage is that of evaluation. It has been acknowledged as an extremely important one as it will play a big-time role in determining the sustainability and the long-term impact of the training. Kirkpatrick Model of evaluation, which comprises four levels, will be employed to evaluate the integrated teaching program. The four levels include the following:

  • Reaction (Level 1): Feedback from students immediately after an integrated teaching session
  • Learning (Level 2): Pre- and post-integrated teaching session feedback to detect the extent of learning on the topic
  • Change in behavior (Level 3): By keeping problem-solving exercises for the students and ascertaining whether they have acquired the skills and checking whether they have been able to integrate the taught concepts and use the same in their daily practice
  • Results (Level 4): The evaluation of this level will require some time, and it can be done through the adoption of the same during their internship


It is a good thing that some of the Indian medical schools have already implemented integrated modules, and the experience of the same can be utilized before initiating the program within an institute.[5],[6],[7],[8] However, the program organizers and faculty members should be given adequate liberty to improvise in their own setting and context and look into the utility and sustainability of the program.

In conclusion, even though integrated teaching is a wonderful tool to enhance learning in the field of medical education, the successful planning and implementation of the same is a challenging task. However, the presence of an integrated teaching module can assist the curriculum committee and medical education unit of the institute for a successful implementation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Medical Council of India. Competency Based Under Graduate Curriculum for the Indian Medical Graduate. Medical Council of India; 2018. Available from: https://old.mciindia.org/InformationDesk/ForColleges/UGCurriculum.aspx. [Last accessed on 2019 Feb 14].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Haranath PS. Integrated teaching in medicine – Indian scene. Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Harden RM. The integration ladder: A tool for curriculum planning and evaluation. Med Educ 2000;34:551-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Lehman BL. A.D.D.I.E.: A Proactive Approach to Employee Training and Development; 2007. Available from: http://docplayer.net/8191220-A-d-d-i-e-a-proactive-approach-to-employee-training-development-white-paper-january-2007-author.html. [Last accessed on 2019 Feb 14].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Karthikeyan K, Kumar A, Bupathy A, Rajagovindan D. Integrated modular teaching in undergraduate medicine. Natl Med J India 2014;27:90-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yadav PP, Chaudhary M, Patel J, Shah A, Kantharia ND. Effectiveness of integrated teaching module in pharmacology among medical undergraduates. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2016;6:215-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ghosh S, Pandya HV. Implementation of integrated learning program in neurosciences during first year of traditional medical course: Perception of students and faculty. BMC Med Educ 2008;8:44.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Vyas R, Jacob M, Faith M, Isaac B, Rabi S, Sathishkumar S, et al. An effective integrated learning programme in the first year of the medical course. Natl Med J India 2008;21:21-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    




 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
  Analyze
  Design
  Develop
  Implement
  Evaluate
   References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed285    
    Printed37    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded79    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal