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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 200-201  

Wuhan seafood market, diamond princess cruise, and Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus: Important places in the timeline of coronavirus disease-19 outbreak


1 RVT Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India; Department of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China

Date of Submission26-Feb-2020
Date of Decision28-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance26-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication3-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Won Sriwijitalai
RVT Medical Center, Bangkok
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_62_20

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How to cite this article:
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Wuhan seafood market, diamond princess cruise, and Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus: Important places in the timeline of coronavirus disease-19 outbreak. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2020;13:200-1

How to cite this URL:
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Wuhan seafood market, diamond princess cruise, and Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus: Important places in the timeline of coronavirus disease-19 outbreak. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 9];13:200-1. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2020/13/3/200/285771




  Introduction Top


Coronavirus disease-19 is an important emerging disease caused by newly detected coronavirus. Initial cases were reported in December 2019 from China.[1] Since its first appearance in 2019, it has spread to several countries. Focusing on timeline of outbreak, there are some important famous places that should be mentioned. Wuhan seafood market, Diamond Princess Cruise and Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus are the examples. The medical implication and lesson learned related to these places are discussed.


  Wuhan Seafood Market Top


Wuhan seafood market is believed to be the origin of the disease outbreak. It is believed, without evidence, that the disease originated from wild animals and crossed to humans. Who is “zero patient” is still unknown. Based on epidemiological reports from China, not all patients in the first phase of outbreak had a history of visiting this market and it leads to the question whether the market is the exact origin of disease.[2] Since the market is a common place in the city, it could have facilitated transmission. The “zero place” and “zero patient” are still unknown and difficult to establish. In fact, the main primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is timely recognition of clinical features as well as its epidemiology including its zero origin.[3]

Lessons learned from this include the necessity for precautions in markets as well as other crowded places. Ethnic eating habits, exotic eating style, and eating wildlife's meat should also be discouraged. Eating exotic foods made from meat of wild animal is also an important risk for many disease such as sparganosis and trichinellosis.[4]


  Diamond Princess Cruise Top


Diamond Princess Cruise is a luxurious tourist cruise. It can carry many thousands of passengers. This cruise had the potential for becoming an important focus of the outbreak. The concern was first mentioned when Japan quarantined passengers on this cruise. No permission for immigration existed unmasking the dilemma of management of the outbreak. As a closed place, the disease heavily circulated on the cruise and caused hundreds of infected cases with many deaths.[5]

Lessons learned from this cruise include the necessity for active prevention plan for disease control on international cruise during the emergence of new diseases.[6] The ethical dilemma of strict quarantine is another issue which merits discussion. Whether the quarantine increased the transmission and harm to the cruise passengers is worth considering.


  Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus Top


Daegu Shincheonji Church of Jesus is a church in Daegu city, South Korea. This is a place of religious gathering. The superspreader is suspected to be a local Korean woman who went to pray at the church despite being ill. With crowded environment and cultural religious practices rule which forbid mask, the Korean woman named “Patient 31” by Korea's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, developed a fever on February 10, 2020, and attended four Church Services before being diagnosed with coronavirus.[7] In fact, outbreaks from religious places and practices have occurred in the past, an example is mumps outbreak in Colorada.[8]

Lessons learned from the above include the necessity for active prevention plan for disease control at crowded places. The religious places as potential centers for spread of outbreaks should be kept in mind. Appropriate public health action is called for larger religious gatherings such as the Hajj that in the Middle East where the infection is endemic. In addition to the religious place, the other kinds of crowded places such as marketplaces, schools, cinemas, department stores, and sports stadiums should have plans for good prevention.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Hsia W. Emerging new coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China: Situation in early 2020. Case Study Case Rep 2020;10:8-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Durrheim DN, Harris BN, Speare R, Billinghurst K. The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:22-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kamiya M, Ooi HK. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1991;22 Suppl: 48-53.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Zhang S, Diao M, Yu W, Pei L, Lin Z, Chen D. Estimation of the reproductive number of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the probable outbreak size on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: A data-driven analysis. Int J Infect Dis 2020;93:201-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mouchtouri VA, Lewis HC, Hadjichristodoulou C, EU SHIPSAN ACT Joint Action Partnership. A systematic review for vaccine-preventable diseases on ships: Evidence for cross-border transmission and for pre-employment immunization Need. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 30;16(15). pii: E2713. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16152713.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Lanese N. 'Superspreader' in South Korea infects nearly 40 people with coronavirus. LiveScience; February 23, 2020. Available from: https://www.livescience.com/coronavirus-superspreader-south-korea-church.html (20). [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 27].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Marx GE, Burakoff A, Barnes M, Hite D, Metz A, Miller K, et al. Mumps outbreak in a Marshallese Community-Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, 2016-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1143-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    




 

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  Introduction
  Wuhan Seafood Market
   Diamond Princess...
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