|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 541-545
Pharmaceutical standardization of Agastyaharitaki Avaleha
Vasundhara Jaluthriya, Swapnil Chaudhari, Biswajyoti Patgiri, Prashant Bedarkar
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Submission||29-Aug-2019|
|Date of Decision||15-Sep-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Oct-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||7-Sep-2020|
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Agastyaharitaki Avaleha(AHA) is an important ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, mentioned in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI, Part III). It is routinely prescribed in Pratishyaya(chronic rhinitis), kasa(cough), and shwasa(asthma) by ayurvedic physicians. Aim: The objective was to develop the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) and quality standards of AHA. Materials and methods: In the current research work, AHA was prepared in three batches as per standard guidelines mentioned in AFI. The drug was prepared in three batches to generate SMP. Results: Average percentage yield of Prakshepa(Pippali) was 88.67%; during the procedure of Avaleha, the temperature was maintained in between 90°C and 100°C and observed Darvi Pralepatvam at 93°C, Tantumatvam at 94°C, Apsumajjanam at 94°C, and sthiratvam at 95°C. Average yield was found as 9570 g. It took 20.10 h to complete the preparation of avaleha. Conclusion: The current study reflects standardization and opens a new concept to standardize the product.
Keywords: Agastyaharitaki Avaleha, pharmaceutical, standarization
|How to cite this article:|
Jaluthriya V, Chaudhari S, Patgiri B, Bedarkar P. Pharmaceutical standardization of Agastyaharitaki Avaleha. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2020;13:541-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Jaluthriya V, Chaudhari S, Patgiri B, Bedarkar P. Pharmaceutical standardization of Agastyaharitaki Avaleha. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 30];13:541-5. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2020/13/5/541/294340
| Introduction|| |
Ayurvedic pharmaceutics is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world market. Ancient heritage blended with current updated pharmaceutical technology helps in better appreciation. Avalehas are semisolid dosage form basically used for internal administration. Avaleha is considered as an upakalpana of kwatha since Acharya Sharangadhara has given utmost importance to kwatha in the definition.Avaleha, synonymous with dosage forms like avaleha, khanda, ghana, is intended for internal administration, and they are semisolid preparation of drug by the addition of jaggery, sugar, or sugar candy and boiled with prescribed liquids. It can be consumed along with specified anupana.
Agastyaharitaki Avaleha (AHA) is a well-known Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation used for the management of various diseases such as kasa, shwasa, and urdvaroga. It is described by Acharya Charaka in kasarogadhikara and explained as rasayana in Ashtangahridayam chikitsasthana in kasarogadhikara. The nomenclature of AHA is based on its one main ingredient Haritaki. Therefore, the first time, this is explained as Agastyaharitakirasayana in Charakasamhita and Ashtangahridayama.
Considering this, it was attempted to prepare AHA andto develop the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) and quality standards of AHA.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The formulation composition of AHA is summarized at [Table 1]. The raw drugs were procured from the pharmacy, GAU, Jamnagar, and local market of Jamnagar. Madhu was purchased from Gujarat vanvibhag centre. All the herbal ingredients were authenticated at the pharmacognosy Department laboratory, IPGT and RA, and Jamnagar.
Stainless steel container 150 liter capacity, stainless steel tray, ladle stainless steel length: 68 cm, cloth: clean cotton cloth of 2 × 2 feet, measuring jar: 2l, sieve (10#), measuring machine: 25 kg capacity, and gas burner with LPG cylinder (14.5 kg capacity) were used in making process of avaleha.
AHAwas prepared at department of Rasashastra and BhaishajyaKalpana, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar. The pharmaceutical procedure's step was carried out as mentioned below:
Preparation of churna
Dried Pippali was powdered in a mixer and sieved through 80# to obtain fine powder.
Preparation of kwatha
Yavakuta (coarse powder 10#) of kwathadravyas (1 to 20) [Table 1] were taken in a stainless steel vessel. Eight times of potable water was added in it. Pottali (adhere) of 1.8 kg Haritaki fruit and 4.596 kg Yava was prepared and suspended separately in this liquid along with kwathadravya and left undisturbed overnight (12 hours) for soaking. The next day morning, the contents were subjected to mild heating on gas burner till the volume reduced to one-fourth part about to, that is, 6 l. Haritaki pottali and Yavapottali were removed from decoction. Decoction was filtered through a clean cotton cloth. Throughout the procedure of kwatha (boiling), the temperature was maintained in-between 90–100°C under observation, and approximately, it took 9 h to prepare the kwatha (decoction) [Figure 1]a, [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]c.
|Figure 1: (a-r) Pictures of manufacturing process of Agastyaharitaki Avaleha|
Click here to view
Preparation of avaleha
Prepared kwatha was filtered through double-folded cotton cloth and added 7.2 kg Guda (Jaggery) into it. The contents were subjected to mild heating over LPG till complete mixing of Guda. Then, it was again filtered through cotton cloth to remove physical impurities of Guda (Jaggery). Haritaki pericarp was made form boiled Haritaki fruit without seeds using grinder. In another vessel, Haritaki pericarp's paste was fried with Tilataila, and Goghrita tillit's color was changed from light brown to dark chocolaty brown. After getting one thread consistency, fried Haritaki pulp was added in it. Stirring process was continued till Guda (Jaggery) syrup had obtained two thread consistency. After completion of this process, let it be self-cool; then, prakeshpadravya (Pippalichurna) was added at approximately 60°C. Finally, honey was added after complete cooling and stored in airtight plastic container [Figure 1]d, [Figure 1]e, [Figure 1]f, [Figure 1]g, [Figure 1]h, [Figure 1]h, [Figure 1]i, [Figure 1]j, [Figure 1]k, [Figure 1]l, [Figure 1]m, [Figure 1]n, [Figure 1]o, [Figure 1]p, [Figure 1]q, [Figure 1]r.
| Observations|| |
Average percentage yield of Prakshepa (Pippali)was88.67%; during the procedure of avaleha, the temperature was maintained in-between 90°C and 100°C and observed darvi pralepatvam at 93°C, tantumatvam at 94°C, apsumajjanam at 94°C, and sthiratvam at 95°C. Average yield was found as 9570 g. It took 20.21 h to complete the preparation of avaleha. Details of powdering of Pippali, results of final batches, and chief desired characteristics of AHA are placed at [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], respectively.
|Table 5: Weight of Haritaki pericarp paste after frying with Tila taila and Go-ghrita|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The pharmaceutical procedure mentioned in classical ayurvedic text Ashtangahridayam and Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) are same. As per the classical references, it is told that Haritaki fruit should be 100 numbers. If the ingredients are told in numbers, it is quite difficult to prepare in large scale. Easy method of drug preparation is the need of many herbal drug industries of the present era. In AFI, Part-1st, 3:1, it is mentioned that 100 Haritaki fruits are equal to 1.2 kg. Hence, a study was carried out to standardize the number of fruits in 1 kg of Hariatki. Three batches were repeated to get the average quantity of yield.
When syrup consistency achieved one thready in avaleha preparation, fried Haritaki paste was added in syrup uniformaly to get proper mixing of paste. Dashamoola have shwasahara property,Haritaki is mentioned as “Shrethapathyanaam,“ and prakshepadravya (Pippali) also have dipana, kasahara, shwasahara, and vatahara property.Avaleha is a semisolid formulation; manufacturing procedure of avaleha at least involves a liquid media and sweetening substance. The amount of water to be added with the raw material differs depending on the quantity and quality of the raw material. If the quantity of raw material is less, it has been advocated to take more amount of water (16 times). Again, the proportion also depends on the quality (soft/medium/hard) of the material. Where water: drug ratio is not mentioned in formulation, it should be taken four, eight, and 16 times according to the quality of material.
In the present study, AHA was prepared as per the reference ofAshtangahridya (Chikitsa Sthana, 3/125-130). Before the processing for powdering of Pippali fruits, physical impurities were removed manually. Average of 8 g physical impurities was found from Pippali. Average 11.32% loss was observed during preparation of Pippali churna [Table 2]. It may be due to loss during process of grinding. Few portion was not converted in to fine powder. During the preparation of Kwatha, Haritaki fruits (1.8 kg) and Yava (4.596 kg) were bundled in piece of cotton cloth in Dolayantra which was filled with Kwatha dravya for overnight. It helps to increase softness l and more extraction from the materials. Kwatha dravyas was made coarse powder [Table 1] and soaked overnight for proper extraction of the active principles. After completion of Kwatha, boiled Hatitaki pottali was taken out and Haritaki seeds was removed. Average 868 g, 2449 g, 299 g, and 2150 g were found as weight of Haritaki seeds, weight of Haritaki pericarp's, weight of fibers of Haritaki, and weight after of Haritaki pericarp's pulp passing through mesh size 10# during preparation of Haritaki kalka, respectively [Table 4]. Average 87.78% yeild of Haritaki paste was gotten in preparation and 12.22% loss was observad during grinding process of Haritaki paricarp paste [Table 4]. It may be due to removing the fiber materials during passing through the sieve (10#). After making paste of Haritaki pericarp's pulp, it was frying with equal proportion each Tilataila and Goghrita till the separation of sneha from paste which is indicating the moisture free from paste. Average 25.75% loss is found after frying of paste of Haritaki pericarp paste with Taila and Ghrita. It may be due to removing the moisture from paste of Haritaki pericarp [Table 5].
During avaleha preparation when syrup achieved one thread consistency, fried Haritaki paste was added into it to get proper mixing of paste in syrup. When two thread consistency of syrup was observed, stop the heating process and vessel was removed from fire and left for self-cooling. Pippalichurna was added separately at that time temperature around 60°C–70°C. The two tread consistency indicates the percentage of sugar around 70% which is most important for shelf life of drugs. Madhu was added after complete cooling of the material. Honey administered internally in warm condition leads to death. According to modern pharmaceutics, the honey decomposes at a temperature around 70°C. Hence, high temperature should not be given to honey. Some research scholars opine that honey should be added on 2nd day, as paka of Avaleha should not be completed within a day. Average 9570 g AHAwas obtained [Table 7].
|Table 7: Results obtained during preparation of Agastya Haritaki Avaleha|
Click here to view
The avalehasiddhi lakshanas such as darvipralepatvam, tantumatvam, appsumajjati, and patitastunashiryate are the parameters which give an idea regarding the concentration of sweetening agents and reduction of moisture content. Thus, indicating the time to remove the vessel from the fire, and it is the time to add the prakshepas. Screening the avaleha products in the market, it can be understood that each product varies with the consistency. The consistency of the final product depends mainly on the pharmaceutical procedure and the ingredients of the formulation. However, in general looking into the assanapakalakshana of avaleha, first darvipralepatvam could be noticed, and then, the tantumatvam stage gives a clear picture. Then appsumajjati stage was appeared.
| Conclusion|| |
The doveloped SMP may be taken in further pharmaceutical study and also, it will be helpful in further scientific research.
Financial support and sponsorship
Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Vidyasagar P, editor. Sharngadharasamhita of Sharangadhara, Madhyamakhanda. Reprint 2018. Ch. 8. Ver. 82-83. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2013. p. 206.
The ayurvedic formulary of india, 1st
ed Part 2nd
Govt. of india, Minstry of health and welfare 2000. p. 47.
Tripathi B, editor. Charaka Samhita of Charaka, Charaka Chandrika Hindi Commentary. Chikitsa Sthana. Ch. 18/57-62. Varanasi: Chaukhmbha Surbharti Prakashan; 2008. p. 649.
Sastri Paradakara HS Pt., editor. Ashtangahridya: Commentary by Sarvangasundra by Arundatta and Hemadriannonated. Dr Anna Morewar Kunte and Krishna Ramachandra Shastri Avre, Chikitsa Sthana. 9th
ed., Ch. 3/127-132. Varanasi: Chaukambaorientalia; 2005. p. 497.
Vidyasagar P, editor. Sharngadharasamhita of Sharangadhara, Madhyamakhanda. Ch. 6, Ver. 82-83, Reprint 2018. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2013. p. 178.
Vidyasagar PS Pt., editor. Sharngadharasamhita of Sharangadhara, Madhyamakhanda. Ch. 2. Ver 82-83. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2013. p. 144.
Sastri P, editor. Ashtangahridya of Vagbhatta: Commentary by Sarvangasundra by Arundatta and Hemadriannonated by Dr Anna MorewarKunte and Krishna Ramachandra Shastriavre, Chikitsa Sthana. Ch. 3. (AFI Part I 3:1). Chaukamba Surbahrati Prakshan; 2004. p. 425.
Acharya JT, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Shushruta with the Commentary by Dalhana, Sutra Sthana. 8th
ed., Ch. 38. Varanasi: Chaukhambhaorentalia; 2005. p. 169.
Trikamji J, editor. Charaka Samhita by Agnivesa, Sutra Sthana. Ch. 25. Varanasi: Chaukhambhakrishnsdas Academy; 2006. p. 469.
Pandey GS, editor. Bhavaprakashanighantu of Shri Bhavamishra. 1st
ed., Ch. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambhabharati Academy; 2015. p. 16.
Sastri P, editor. Sharangadhara Samhita by Sharangadhara, Madhayamakhanda. Ch. 9. Varanasi: Choukhambhaorientalia Publication; 2002. p. 216.
Sastri P, editor. SharangadharaSamhita by Sharangadhara, Madhayamakhanda. Ch. 9. Varanasi: Choukhambhaorientalia Publication; 2002. p. 212.
Keshav P. Clinical study on the role of Agastya Haritaki Rasayana in the Management of Chronic Bronchitis. PhD (Ayu) Thesis. Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda. Jamnagar: Gujarat Ayurved University; 2015.
Jadavaji Trikamji Acharya (Agnivesa), editor. Charaka Samhita of Charaka, Sutrastana. Ch. 26. Varanasi: Chaukhambhakrishnsdas Academy; 2006. p. 150.
Prajapati D, Nariya M, Galib R, Patgiri BJ, Prajapati PK. Pharmaceutical development of Shirishavaleha and its granules prepared with KhandaSharkara and their comparative efficacy on TamakaShwasa (Bronchial Asthma)” MD Ayu Dissertation. Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda. Jamnagar: Gujarat Ayurved University; 2014.
Sastri P, editor. Sharangadhara Samhita by Sharangadhara, Madhayamakhanda. Ch. 8. Varanasi: Choukhambhasubharti Prakashan; 2018. p. 207.measuring machine: 25 kg capacity, and gas burner with LPG cylinder (14.5 kg capacity) were used in making process of avaleha.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]