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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 306-310

Evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus in Nnamdi Azikiwe university teaching hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria
2 Center for Clinical Research in Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria
3 Department of Biochemistry, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State, Nigeria
4 Department of Pathology, Clinical Biochemistry, East Kent Hospital University, NHS Foundation Trust, Kent
5 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, England, UK

Correspondence Address:
O Ekuma-Okereke
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_156_19

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Background of Study: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and damage to vital organs most notably the exocrine tissue and islet cells. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a glycolipid antigen produced by the exocrine pancreas. Thus, it could be a useful indicator of the intensity of cellular damage to the exocrine pancreas by disease conditions such as DM. Aim: This was a case–control study aimed at evaluating the serum level of CA 19-9 as a diagnostic tool in patients with DM. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients aged 20–70 years were randomly selected in this study. They comprised 50 diabetic individuals as test patients and 40 aged-matched apparently healthy individuals as controls. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were determined spectrophotometrically using the glucose oxidase method, whereas the serum level of CA 19-9 was estimated photometrically using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: There was a statistically significant elevation of CA 19-9 in patients with DM compared to the nondiabetic individuals (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficient between CA 19–9 levels and age in patients with DM showed a nonsignificant positive relationship (r = 0.265, P = 0.063). A nonsignificant positive correlation was also observed when the mean level of CA 19-9 was correlated with the mean plasma level of FPG in patients with DM (r = 0.021, P = 0.884). Conclusion: The significantly elevated serum level of CA 19-9 along with its positive correlation with FPG indicates the need for a careful evaluation of blood glucose regulation while suggesting that CA 19–9 could be a suitable marker to predict chronic inflammatory complications in patients with DM. Hence, further evaluation with a duration of diabetes and glycemic control using glycated hemoglobin to ascertain the relevance of CA 19–9 in glycemic control in individuals with DM.

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