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COMMENTARY
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51  

Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to disinfectants


Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission12-Nov-2020
Date of Decision15-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance19-Nov-2020
Date of Web Publication22-Jan-2021

Correspondence Address:
Rabindranath Nath Misra
Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_626_20

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How to cite this article:
Misra RN. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to disinfectants. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2021;14:51

How to cite this URL:
Misra RN. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to disinfectants. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Feb 27];14:51. Available from: https://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2021/14/1/51/307688



Dear Sir,

There are numerous mechanisms harbored by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to resist the action of antibiotics; for example, target-site alteration, decreased penetration, or using enzymes to inactivate the antimicrobial agent. They are categorized as intrinsic or acquired.[1],[2] Biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa is one of the efficient mechanisms by which it resists the action of antibacterial agents in the immediate environment.[3],[4],[5] Biofilms are nothing but a biopolymer matrix attached to surfaces such as catheters and plastic tubes. They may also be attached to implantable devices or tissues in cystic fibrosis and osteomyelitis. These biopolymers encase clusters of bacterial colonies and protect them from antibacterial substances.

Biofilm production is controlled by quorum sensing (QS) which is basically cell-to-cell communication by signaling molecules called autoinducers which eventually help in a complex gene regulation process. This QS also controls the expression of virulence factors such as protease, elastase, and exotoxin A besides helping in protection from antibacterial substances.

In one of the studies from Ethiopia, the authors have found resistance of P. aeruginosa to disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite 0.5% and hydrogen peroxide 3%, albeit a very less percentage. Similar studies have been reported from Brazil and the USA.[6],[7] P. aeruginosa is also seen to develop resistance to 70% ethyl alcohol in 4.8% of isolates and to 2% Savlon in 11.1% of isolates.

The complex genetic makeup and the large genome size of P. aeruginosa reflect adaptability to various ecological niches. It has acquired the capability to efflux antibiotics and other compounds. This is how it has developed intrinsic antibiotic resistance facilitated by low permeability in the outer membrane.[8]

These findings are alarming and do not augur well for the humankind as it is already fighting a losing battle against the multidrug-resistant bacteria, which are resistant to a number of antibiotics. The role of biofilm cannot be underestimated as microenvironment modulation and exchange of genes is facilitated inside the biofilm.[8]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: Survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:167-93.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Parsek MR, Singh PK. Bacterial biofilms: An emerging link to disease pathogenesis. Annu Rev Microbiol 2003;57:677-701.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Davies DG, Parsek MR, Pearson JP, Iglewski B H, Gosterton J W, Greenberg EP et al. The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 1998;280:295-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Niall DM, Murphy PG, Fogarty EE, Dowling F E, Moore D P. Puncture wound related Pseudomonas infections of the foot in children. Ir J Med Sci 1997;166:98-101.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Eifrig CW, Scott IU, Flynn HW Jr, Miller D. Endophthalmitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1714-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mitiku M, Ali S, Kibru G. Antimicrobial drug resistance and disinfectant susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from clinical and environmental samples in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Am J Biomed Life Sci 2014;2:40-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Iroha IR, Oji AE, Nwosu OK, Amadi ES. Antimicrobial activity of Savlon, Izal and Z-germicide against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital wards. Eur J Dent Med 2011;3:32-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Stover CK, Pham XQ, Erwin AL, Mizoguchi SD, Warrener P, Hickey MJ, et al. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen. Nature 2000;406:959-64.  Back to cited text no. 8
    




 

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