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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 662-665  

Incorporating movies and cinema in the medical education delivery: A curricular innovation


1 Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission27-Apr-2021
Date of Decision20-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance24-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication22-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_296_21

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  Abstract 


The branch of medicine is dynamic and keeps changing with each day, and thus, it is a big responsibility of the teachers to train medical students to fulfill the roles expected of them. The current review was carried out to understand the role of movies in medical education and the working model that can be adopted for its smooth integration within the existing curriculum. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine, and a total of 10 articles were selected based upon the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. The employment of cinemas or movies in medical education has a special place, considering the rationale that watching and listening a video establish a sense of reality that is more conducive to learning. The use of movies creates a platform for the delivery of medical care in a humanistic, empathetic, and patient-centered manner and that makes the entire process of teaching efficient and effective. The introduction of movies and videos as a part of the medical curriculum delivery is a positive approach to ensure that students learn both cognitive and noncognitive skills. Considering the need that we have to appeal to all the learning domains, all the medical colleges should formulate a potential plan to introduce the use of movies and videos in teaching-learning and thereby benefit all types of learners.

Keywords: Cinema, curriculum, medical education, movies


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Incorporating movies and cinema in the medical education delivery: A curricular innovation. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2022;15:662-5

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Incorporating movies and cinema in the medical education delivery: A curricular innovation. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 26];15:662-5. Available from: https://www.mjdrdypv.org/text.asp?2022/15/5/662/336321




  Introduction Top


The branch of medicine is dynamic and keeps changing with each day, and thus, it is a big responsibility of the teachers to train medical students to fulfill the roles expected of them.[1] Considering the fact that a significant amount of medical knowledge has to be passed on to the students within a specified amount of time, it becomes quite obvious that as medical teachers, we should adopt innovations so that the students continue to learn within the classroom and hospital settings.[1] The ideal strategy to facilitate the teaching-learning will be through the use of verbal, visual, and auditory stimuli, so that we target all types of learners and thereby can anticipate better accomplishment of learning outcomes.[1],[2] The current review was carried out to understand the role of movies in medical education and the working model that can be adopted for its smooth integration within the existing curriculum.


  Methods Top


An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine. Relevant research articles focusing on the use of movies or cinema in the field of medical education published in the period 2007–2021 were included in the review. A total of 13 studies similar to the current study objectives were identified initially, of which, 3 were excluded due to the unavailability of the complete version of the articles. Overall, 10 articles were selected based upon the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Keywords used in the search include movies, cinema, and medical education in the title alone only. The collected information is presented under the following subheadings, namely technology in the delivery of medical education, inclusion of movies in medical education: justification, movies and medical education, merits of movies inclusion, movies as a medium for the acquisition of noncognitive skills, utility of movies in targeting specific skills, planning and implementation, identified challenges and potential solutions, lessons from the field, implications for practice, and implications for research.


  Technology in the Delivery of Medical Education Top


The inclusion of technology in each and every field including in medical education has gradually become a reality and its use continues to rise. As educators, we have to admit that if we want to actively engage students in the learning process, we have to plan and implement some or other form of technology as an instructional tool, so that we succeed in providing a wide range of learning opportunities.[2],[3] In fact, to strengthen the teaching process and make the learning effective, gradually teachers have started to incorporate videos of actual or simulated events within their teaching sessions that not only act as stimulus change but also reinforces learning by appealing to different senses.[3],[4]


  Inclusion of Movies in Medical Education: Justification Top


Although didactic lecture continues to be the most common mode of teaching-learning, we must accept that it predominantly appeals to the cognitive domain, does not suit all types of learners, and students have limited attention span.[1],[2] Further, we must acknowledge that predominantly we teach students about diseases, and not in terms of patients. Although this gap is bridged to some extent by bedside teaching, nevertheless clinical attribute still is prioritized instead of the psychosocial aspects. The use of lectures as a teaching-learning method would not be able to address the existing gap, and thus, the utility of movies and cinemas is of immense significance, especially in developing a different outlook toward approaching a patient and their problems.[2],[3],[4]


  Movies and Medical Education Top


The employment of cinemas or movies in medical education has a special place, considering the rationale that watching and listening a video establish a sense of reality that is more conducive to learning.[3],[5] Further, the experience while watching movies can be equated with an authentic experience of interaction with a real patient. It is a proven fact that students comprehend and remember those stuffs pretty well that are linked with an emotional response.[4],[5],[6] In fact, these involved emotions play a defining act in the development of relevant attitude, behaviors, deep, and long-term learning. Moreover, owing to the ability of movies to engage learners, the students learn as a part of the discussion.[3],[6]


  Merits of Movies Inclusion Top


The incorporation of movies during curriculum delivery aids in enhancing attention of students, improving the ability to concentrate on reading, encourages creativity among the students, facilitates the flow of information, and in establishing linkage between relevant concepts. Moreover, the entire process of learning becomes fun filled and that plays an important part in reducing the stress and anxiety attributed to the extent of information which a student has to master.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]


  Movies as a medium for acquisition of Noncognitive Skills Top


The use of movies creates a platform for the delivery of medical care in a humanistic, empathetic, and patient-centered manner and that makes the entire process of teaching efficient and effective.[1],[3] This plays a big part in improving the communication skills, better teamwork, and adoption of a professional behavior by the medical students, which is not only applicable in the training period but is also quite useful for their future clinical practice.[2],[3],[4] Movies can aid in the development of better doctor-patient communication or interactions and can also portray an ideal role model. Further, foundation stones with regard to becoming a self-directed and a lifelong learner can also be accomplished by the use of movies in the curriculum.[3],[4],[5]


  Utility of Movies in Targeting Specific Skills Top


Movies and cinemas have been used in an informal manner in multiple medical colleges across the world.[4],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] The available review of literature suggests their utility in terms of teaching family medicine competencies, mental disorders, social determinants of health, domestic violence, altruism, ethical dilemmas, professionalism, etc.[3],[4],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] These evidence clearly depict that the scope of movies in the delivery of the curriculum as well as noncognitive attributes are immense, and we should explore all possibilities for the smooth integration of the same based on the specific competencies to be taught or the aspect of hidden curriculum to be covered.


  Planning and Implementation Top


The process of planning and implementation of introduction of movies within the curriculum has to be well planned and systematic. It is a must that the movies or videos which are selected for screening for the students pass on the correct and relevant message without confusing the students.[4],[5] The selected movies should be appropriate to the level of learners and should not overburden them with information load. Another possible approach will be to include movie in the curriculum as a part of self-directed learning, and subsequently, everyone meets to share their views about the movie in terms of what was the message, what they learned and under which circumstances the learned knowledge can be applied in routine clinical practice.[3],[4],[5]

It is also a good possibility to explore the option of initiating an elective course, wherein all important domains can be screened. The students should be asked to reflect upon the session and record what they learned after the screening. It is a must that the sessions should be planned either during a class (for small videos that can be accommodated within the time allocated) or within the lunch break, so that under no circumstances, the overall duration of training is stretched further. Further, it is a must that this curricular innovation should be periodically assessed, and Kirkpatrick Model can be used to get insights about the reaction, learning, change in behavior and finally, the results in terms of improved patient care.[3]


  Identified Challenges and Potential Solutions Top


The introduction of movies within the curriculum has its own challenges, and there is some form of opposition with regard to the content that has been shared with the students.[2],[3],[4] The potential solution to avoid this can be in terms of screening the content of the movie or the video and ascertaining the specific learning objectives that are being covered. However, we must realize that even if some negative presentation of the patient or health-care professionals is screened, that ground should be used to facilitate discussion and analysis by the students, so that they understand what is a professional behavior and what is unprofessional. This will prove to be a lifetime lesson for them to not indulge in unprofessional approach and in many ways improve the health-care industry in the coming years.[1],[2],[3],[4]


  Lessons from the Field Top


At Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, a constituent college of the Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Deemed-to-be-University, Puducherry, the Institute Research Council has been assigned the responsibility of improving research output and understanding about the same among all the stakeholders. One of the innovations of the council has been the initiation of Scientific Video Forum, wherein during lunch hours, every 15 days on an earmarked Thursday, important movies or videos or ted talks are being screened for the students. There is a two member committee, which screens the videos for their scientific content, and then, only videos are screened. Upon completion of the screening, an informal feedback is obtained from the students to understand their learning.


  Implications for Practice Top


The Heads of the Department can have a department-level meeting with their team members, wherein views of the members can be obtained about the identification of important movies or videos that can enhance learning pertaining to the subject competencies as well as pertaining to the hidden curriculum. It will be ideal that the members of the Curriculum Committee are also roped in the entire process before its implementation, so that potential mistakes can be avoided. It will be essential that a feedback form is developed, which allows the participating students to share their views. Further, an encouraging practice will be to motivate the medical students to record their reflections and that will be a good way to stimulate self-directed learning.


  Implications for Research Top


As the use of movies and videos are not widely introduced in all the medical colleges, there is a definite scope for a lot of research to understand the scope and utility of the same in the curriculum. Further, there is a need to carry out research to devise a feasible and structured plan on how movies and videos can be integrated within the existing curriculum without jeopardizing the teaching-learning activities. Studies can be planned to assess the effectiveness of movies in improving learning and compare the same with other modes of teaching-learning.


  Conclusion Top


The introduction of movies and videos as a part of the medical curriculum delivery is a positive approach to ensure that students learn both cognitive and noncognitive skills. Considering the need that we have to appeal to all the learning domains, all the medical colleges should formulate a potential plan to introduce the use of movies and videos in teaching-learning and thereby benefit all types of learners.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Kuhnigk O, Schreiner J, Reimer J, Emami R, Naber D, Harendza S. Cinemeducation in psychiatry: A seminar in undergraduate medical education combining a movie, lecture, and patient interview. Acad Psychiatry 2012;36:205-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Law M, Kwong W, Friesen F, Veinot P, Ng SL. The current landscape of television and movies in medical education. Perspect Med Educ 2015;4:218-24.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Darbyshire D, Baker P. A systematic review and thematic analysis of cinema in medical education. Med Humanit 2012;38:28-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Baños JE. How literature and popular movies can help in medical education: Applications for teaching the doctor-patient relationship. Med Educ 2007;41:918.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Daher-Nashif S. Doctors' challenges during infectious disease outbreaks: Medical education insights from realistic fiction movies. Adv Med Educ Pract 2021;12:265-72.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kalra G. Teaching diagnostic approach to a patient through cinema. Epilepsy Behav 2011;22:571-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Hankir A, Holloway D, Zaman R, Agius M. Cinematherapy and film as an educational tool in undergraduate psychiatry teaching: A case report and review of the literature. Psychiatr Danub 2015;27 Suppl 1:S136-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Alexander M. The couple's odyssey: Hollywood's take on love relationships. Int Rev Psychiatry 2009;21:183-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lumlertgul N, Kijpaisalratana N, Pityaratstian N, Wangsaturaka D. Cinemeducation: A pilot student project using movies to help students learn medical professionalism. Med Teach 2009;31:e327-32.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Alexander M, Pavlov A, Lenahan P. Lights, camera, action: Using film to teach the ACGME competencies. Fam Med 2007;39:20-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
  Methods
   Technology in th...
   Inclusion of Mov...
   Movies and Medic...
   Merits of Movies...
   Movies as a medi...
   Utility of Movie...
   Planning and Imp...
   Identified Chall...
   Lessons from the...
   Implications for...
   Implications for...
  Conclusion
   References

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