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A clinico-hematological evaluation of pancytopenia at Government Medical College and Hospital, Latur: A 2-year observational study

1 Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Latur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Rahul Pundalik Jadhav,
Flat No. 5, Chandrashil Apartment, Behind Kashi Vishweshwar Temple, New Bhagwan Nagar, Jalgaon, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_333_19

Context: Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. Hematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying etiologies of pancytopenia cases presenting at our institute with clinico-hematological evaluation. Materials and Methods: In this 2-year prospective study, 105 patients aged ≥15 years admitted in hospital with a hematological diagnosis of pancytopenia followed by bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy after receiving an informed consent were studied. The criteria applied for pancytopenia were hemoglobin level: <13.5 g/dL for males and <11.5 g/dL for females; total leukocyte count: <4 × 109/L; and platelet count: <150 × 109/L. Pregnant women and patients aged <15 years along with those who did not give consent for bone marrow aspiration or biopsy were excluded. A detailed clinical examination was carried out in all cases. Results: In the present study, megaloblastic anemia (67.62%) was the most common cause of pancytopenia, followed by aplastic anemia (15.25%), leukemia (3.81%), malaria (3.81%), hypersplenism (3.81%), liver cirrhosis (1.90%), myelofibrosis (1.90%), multiple myeloma (1%), and enteric fever (1%). Conclusions: The severity of pancytopenia and the underlying pathology determine the management and prognosis. Thus, comprehensive clinical and hematological evaluation of pancytopenia cases will help in identification of the correct cause and in implementing the appropriate therapy.

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