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An institution-based cross-sectional study on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy from Kolkata

1 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, R G Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of General Medicine, College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Prithwijit Banerjee,
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kamarhati, Kolkata - 700 058, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_197_20

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication as a consequence of prolonged hyperglycemia and other risk factors. It is seen in both types of diabetes mellitus (DM) and can lead to progressive vision loss. Many prevalence studies were undertaken in the past, but the eastern part of India was less explored. Aim: (1) The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DR among both types of DM patients in an institution-based population of Kolkata. (2) To compare the clinic-biochemical profiles of patients with and without DR. Materials and Methods: From January 2019 to December 2019, 313 patients with a history of DM were screened for DR using slit-lamp bio microscopy with +90D lens after dilating the pupils. Classification of DR was done on the basis of International Clinical classification of DR. Metabolic profile of all participants was noted. Results: The overall prevalence of DR was 16.60% (14.37% nonproliferative and 2.23% proliferative). The prevalence was 80% and 15.58% among Type 1 and 2 DM patients, respectively. Diabetic macular edema was observed in 2.54% of cases. Highest prevalence (38.46%) was observed in patients suffering for more than 20 years of DM. The duration of DM was significantly higher among DR patients (9.46 ± 5.23 years vs. 7.34 ± 5.57; P = 0.012). Patients with DR also displayed significantly higher levels of glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, and albumin-creatinine ratio in comparison to the patients without DR. Conclusion: The prevalence of DR from an institution of Eastern India is comparable to other institutional studies conducted in the various parts of the country. The prevalence is higher among Type 1 DM patients. Nonproliferative DR is the most common type. Comparatively, DR patients had a longer duration of DM. Glycemic control and renal statuses are poor in DR than non-DR patients.

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